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ROM is an abbreviation of Read-Only Memory, a class of computer memory. Because it cannot be modified under normal circumstances, it is mainly used for both software and firmware.
In Game Boy games, ROM addresses (from 4000-7FFF) may also be banked as a work around to many parts of the memory not being available all at once.
ROM can also refer to a ROM image, which is a file containing a copy of the data from a video game cartridge usually intended to be used with a console or emulator.